The Clark Library is proud to exhibit a Heritage Edition of the Saint John's Bible, the first completely handwritten and illuminated Bible to have been commissioned by a Benedictine Abbey since the invention of the printing press. The Heritage Edition uses special ink, paper, and printing techniques to replicate the original Saint John's Bible. Only 299 Heritage Editions were produced, and ours is the only one in the state of Oregon. Many thanks to Allen and Kathie Lund and Family, who donated the Bible to the University.
“Community” is a frequently-heard word at UP. When students, faculty and staff are asked what makes UP special, “the sense of community” is often part of their answer. In honor of this sense of community, Clark Library chose the illumination “Life in Community” for the next Saint John’s Bible display.
This detailed illumination appears in the Gospels & Acts volume, illustrating Acts 4:32:35 and its idealized vision of Christ’s followers, e.g. Acts 4:32, “Now the whole group of those who believed were of one heart and soul, and no one claimed private ownership of any possessions.” According to SJB art analyst Susan Sink it borrows from Eastern Orthodox icon traditions, especially icons of the Pentecost:
Pentecostal icons traditionally show the twelve apostles sitting on curved benches as they are here. Additionally, there is usually the figure of an old man in the space below, where the altar is in this image. He is called “Kosmos” and holds a white cloth with twelve scrolls on it, one for each of the twelve apostles. He represents the world that the apostles are being sent out into with the good news. (Sink, The Art of the Saint John’s Bible, vol. 1, p. 104)
In the illumination, several figures hold scrolls; some hold books, and one has a small child.
The Virgin Mary sits at the center of the illumination community, with Peter at her right hand and possibly Paul at her left. Next to them, six apostles sit on each side, and beyond them figures representing saints of the church. The figures at either end of the row are meant to reflect the world church: a man in a Middle Eastern tunic and vest, and a woman wearing a Guatemalan skirt.
The “Crucifixion” illumination from Luke will be featured in Visio Divina sessions on Wednesday, April 1, at 12:45 p.m. (30 minutes) and 7:00 p.m. (60 minutes) in the Chapel of Christ the Teacher. This Lenten prayer opportunity is sponsored by Campus Ministry and the Garaventa Center. Campus Ministry’s Interactive Lenten Calendar provides this commentary:
Rendered in raised and burnished gold, the crucified figure of Christ dominates this composition. The use of gold conveys the idea of God manifesting himself in his divine love for humanity, represented by the crowd below. Luke’s Gospel recounts that darkness covered the earth for three hours, indicated here by the night sky, and that the curtain of the temple, shown as shreds of purple, was torn in two. The contrast of pain with the glory of gold relates this image to current theological discussions concerning the meaning of the Crucifixion in the contemporary world.
The delicate gray border was printed with English lace, contributing to the recurring theme of textiles in The Saint John’s Bible illuminations.
Throughout The Saint John’s Bible, gold leaf represents the divine. This illumination is awash in it, representing Christians’ belief that Jesus is God. The customary outline of the crucified figure is barely visible. Breaking through the dazzling gilt, we see other elements of the story: on either side the two crosses representing the two thieves crucified alongside Jesus; on the left the moon and stars representing the hours of darkness over the land that coincided with the event; on the right a file of people representing the procession with the cross to Golgotha.
On the facing page in the Bible you will see a scene from the story of the road to Emmaus (right), in which Jesus appeared to two of his disciples.
The “Raising of Lazarus” illumination from John 11 will be featured in Visio Divina sessions on Wednesday, March 25, at 12:45 p.m. (30 minutes) and 7:00 p.m. (60 minutes) in the Chapel of Christ the Teacher. This Lenten prayer opportunity is sponsored by Campus Ministry and the Garaventa Center.
In this illumination the viewer is in the tomb with Lazarus, among the death’s-head moths and golden angels, and the lace of Lazarus’ shroud (created from prints of actual lace). We look out as if through a tunnel of light (perhaps representing descriptions of near-death experiences), where Jesus awaits. Lazarus is upright, appearing to begin to rise and exit. Dominating the illumination are the words, “I am the resurrection and the life” (John 11:25).
In The Art of The Saint John’s Bible, vol. 1, p. 96, Susan Sink says
It is this miracle that will start Jesus on the road to Jerusalem and the crucifixion, the real triumph of light over darkness, life over death. But here we stand with Lazarus poised on the edge of death and life and contemplate our own faith.
The “Demands of Social Justice” illumination from Amos 4 will be featured in Visio Divina sessions on Wednesday, March 18, at 12:45 p.m. (30 minutes) and 7:00 p.m. (60 minutes) in the Chapel of Christ the Teacher. This Lenten prayer opportunity is sponsored by Campus Ministry and the Garaventa Center.
Commenting on this illumination, local (Vashon Island, WA) artist Suzanne Moore has said, “it is about choice, the alternatives of light and dark, obedience and disobedience…human responsibility for our own destiny as we respond to God’s promises.” (quoted by Susan Sink in The Art of The Saint John’s Bible, vol. 2, p. 83)
In this passage in Amos, says Sink, God laments that despite all He has done to try to draw Israel back into His blessings, Israel does not return. Those attempts are listed: famine; drought; blight, mildew, and locusts; pestilence, war, and defeat. The refrain is the same each time: “Yet you did not return to me.” This refrain unites the seven pieces of the illumination, seven pieces as in the Creation but fragmented and chaotic, not bountiful and organized. “This is a reminder,” says Sink,
…that God did not just try to turn the people’s hearts with plagues and punishments, but first tried to draw them close with all the beauty, order and fruitfulness of the Garden. It is the people’s choice not to follow God that has made creation this way. (p. 84)
On the right-hand side of the page, a vaguely menacing creature (a locust?) hovers over the text.
The Transfiguration illumination from Mark 9 will be featured in Visio Divina sessions on Wednesday, March 4, at 12:45 p.m. (30 minutes) and 7:00 p.m. (60 minutes) in the Chapel of Christ the Teacher. This Lenten prayer opportunity is sponsored by Campus Ministry and the Garaventa Center. Campus Ministry’s Interactive Lenten Calendar provided this prompt in 2014:
[...]As we read in today’s Gospel, Jesus is transfigured as a sign of his divine origin. The apostles Peter, James, and John are witnesses to it. Peter, in his zeal, seeks to build tents for Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, but before he knows it, the vision vanishes. In our lives, too, we have glimpses of the Lord. We experience great consolations. We see the love of God at work in the world, in our lives, in prayer, and, most profoundly, in relationships. At times, we see God’s presence most palpably in these contexts. Just as the disciples, however, we are sent down the mountain. As much as we would enjoy staying in the vision to enjoy God’s presence, we are sent back to the valley. We are sent back among others.[...]
As with the Life in Community illumination, iconographer Aidan Hart created the images of Elijah and Moses. Drawing on iconographic tradition, Hart gives Moses two tablets to hold as a symbol of his identity. His and Elijah’s ordinary garments contrast with Jesus’ vestments and serve as pieces of a frame, along with the mottled blue sky and purple earth. The “dazzling white” of the passage is rendered here by a swarm of white crosses, setting Jesus apart from his companions. Likewise, Elijah and Moses’ detailed facial features identify them as men, while Jesus is both present and not present in his incomplete appearance. The gold cross behind him recalls the illumination illustrating his birth, as well as his crucifixion.
The “Suffering Servant” illumination from Isaiah will be featured in Visio Divina sessions on Wednesday, February 25, at 12:45 p.m. (30 minutes) and 7:00 p.m. (60 minutes) in the Chapel of Christ the Teacher. This Lenten prayer opportunity is sponsored by Campus Ministry and the Garaventa Center. Campus Ministry’s Interactive Lenten Calendar provides this commentary:
The Prophets describe a coming Messiah who will restore peace and justice to Israel, yet he will be despised by the wicked and bear their sins quietly. Thus, he is called the Suffering Servant. In Jackson’s image, an emaciated prisoner stands above the head of a lamb, referencing the text in which the Messiah endures his tormenters with grace, “like a lamb that is led to the slaughter.” (Isaiah 53:7). The shadow of a modern chain link fence surrounds the Servant, drawing a parallel between the Messiah’s suffering and that of victims of suffering in today’s world. But just as the figure stands alone in Jackson’s image, so the Suffering Servant will one day be singled out by God to reign in Zion.
Regarding the chain link fence, Susan Sink in The Art of The Saint John’s Bible specifies, “This image was taken from pictures of the fence around Guantanamo Bay, Cuba…The confinement closer to the figure suggests the narrow bars of the Door of No Return at Elmina Castle in Ghana, the passage through which Africans were taken onto ships, bound for slavery in the New World.” (vol. 2, p. 68)
An upcoming presentation on Whimsy and Humor in The Saint John’s Bible will likely include this image, previously presented on this blog in January 2014.
A ring-tailed lemur swings on vines adjacent to a passage, the first lines of 2 Chronicles 11. The text reads:
2 “But the word of the LORD came to Shemaiah the man of God: 3 “Say to [King Rehoboam of Judah, Son of Solomon, and to] all Israel in Judah and Benjamin, 4 ‘Thus says the Lord: You shall not go up or fight against your kindred. Let everyone return home, for this thing is from me.’ So they heeded the word of the Lord and turned back from the expedition against Jeroboam.”
The text in brackets is missing. In the original Saint John’s Bible, written in ink on vellum, the scribe could scrape off a faulty stroke or character, but each page of the Bible took 7 to 10 hours to write and so missing lines of text were a bigger issue. The Bible artists solved the problem in a whimsical way, by recruiting animals to lift the missing line into place. Take a look at the display page; the missing line appears at the bottom of the page, and the lemur’s vines have snared it. The vine in the lemur’s right hand traces the correct location for the missing text.
Artist Chris Tomlin, who studied natural history illustration at the Royal College of Art in London, drew many botanical and animal images for The Saint John’s Bible, some of which appeared in previous images on this blog, such as the chameleon at the end of 2 Maccabees, the butterflies on Jacob’s Ladder, and the coral snake and other animals in the Garden of Eden / Adam and Eve illumination. This ring-tailed lemur from Madagascar is the favorite of several library staff.
An upcoming presentation on Whimsy and Humor in The Saint John’s Bible will likely include this image, previously presented on this blog in March 2014.
A bee works a pulley next to verses from Wisdom of Solomon, chapter 7 — verses referencing the Wisdom Woman illumination previously on display. The text reads:
7 Therefore I prayed, and understanding was given me;
[I called on God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me.]
8 I preferred her to scepters and thrones,
and I accounted wealth as nothing in comparison with her.
The text in brackets is missing. In the original Saint John’s Bible, written in ink on vellum, the scribe could scrape off a faulty stroke or character, but each page of the Bible took 7 to 10 hours to write and so missing lines of text were a bigger issue. The Bible artists solved the problem in a whimsical way, by recruiting animals to lift the missing line into place. Take a look at the display page; the missing line appears at the bottom of the page, and the bee has enclosed it in a box tied with a rope running through a pulley. The pulley’s top wheel, and a tiny arrow, mark the correct location for the missing text. The other two wheels help to guide your eye along the ropes to the passage.
Sarah Harris and Donald Jackson designed the pulley system based on Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical drawings. Artist Chris Tomlin, who studied natural history illustration at the Royal College of Art in London, drew many botanical and animal images for The Saint John’s Bible, some of which appeared in previous images on this blog, such as the lemur, the chameleon at the end of 2 Maccabees, the butterflies on Jacob’s Ladder, and the coral snake and other animals in the Garden of Eden / Adam and Eve illumination.
This is an illumination that deserves lengthy contemplation, as each diagonal stripe in the left-hand side of the page contains images from 5 parables in the book of Luke: “The Lost Coin” (15:8-10); “The Lost Sheep” (15:4-7); “The Good Samaritan” (10:29-37); “The Lost Son” (15:11-32); and “Lazarus and Dives” (16:19-31).
In the upper corner, the moon-like coin and the sheep turned toward the light represent the repenting sinner, and the golden angels rejoice in each act of contrition. Meanwhile in the lower corner a father brings his best cloak to welcome a wandering son with tears of forgiveness, and Dives agonizes in Hell while angels sing Lazarus to his rest in Abraham’s arms. Abraham is identified by Hebrew letters. The father’s cloak, Lazarus’s angels, and Dives’s arm all point to a powerful symbol of the challenge of forgiving evil: the Twin Towers.
On the right we see Mary and Martha clad in mirror-embellished and embroidered fabrics, listening to Jesus perhaps tell a parable. The words on this page read “There is need of only one thing” (Luke 10:42), and that one thing is to listen. Susan Sink explains:
Martha stands in her apron with hands on hips and looks impatient, but at the same time she is, like her sister seated beside her, also gazing at the Lord. Martha and Mary are two sides of love and care, two images of hospitality, a value that is central to the Benedictine tradition. (Art of The Saint John’s Bible, Vol. 1, p. 81)
Filling spaces between diagonals and borders are elements from a mandala, meant according to Donald Jackson “to suggest the way the mind and intelligence work to interpret and understand concepts, like teasing out the meaning of parables and applying them to our contemporary lives.” (Ibid., p. 84)
A woman and her mother-in-law embrace and gaze at a landscape of rolling green and yellow hills and colorful dwellings. “Their future” says Susan Sink (Art of The Saint John’s Bible, vol. 3, p. 31), as their current situation is bleak. They are two widows, Ruth and Naomi, and one of them is an outsider. But thanks to their love for each other, and God’s favor toward them, they will thrive. Ruth’s attentions to her mother-in-law will attract her second husband and she will produce a son, the father of King David.
But for the moment they survive through Ruth’s gleaning. She follows harvesters to steal a grain and perhaps a stray stalk here and there, an occupation that lasts only during the gathering time and that places Ruth at risk of being harassed by the men in the fields. On the facing page we see Ruth standing proudly with her basket.
Sink draws our attention to several motifs on the page, such as the stamped motif sparkling around Ruth and Naomi’s heads in both images, representing cosmic order to the universe and especially God’s miraculous provision for the two widows. And the basket of plenty, which Sink describes as
…more than a basket of grain. It seems to speak to the abundance and fertility at the center of her being, an extension of her swirling skirts. Barrenness and God’s promises will play a role in [several stories in the Bible]. The parallels are rich.
The image of Ruth and Naomi has parallels also in other Saint John’s Bible images, such as (says Sink) the portrait of Mary and Martha in the Luke Anthology. Come to the UP Authors event next Thursday 10/9 from 3:00 to 4:30 to examine this and other images up close.